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Jewish DNA in the Genome of Mexican-Americans
Evidence of Substantial Sephardic Origin in those with Mexican Ancestry
By Gary Felix
UPDATE February 17, 2014 added "Our Sephardic Cousins"

UPDATE September 17, 2011 added "The Sephardic Puzzle"

UPDATE April 30, 2011 added references to the book "New World Jewry 1493-1825: Requiem for the Forgotten" by Liebman UPDATE July 22, 2010 added "Ashkenazi and Ancestry Matching DNA graphics" Online - December 27, 2009 Since 2003 I have been studying DNA as it relates to ancestry and specifically to those with ancestors from Mexico, like myself. One of the goals of the Genealogy of Mexico DNA Project at inception was to determine the role of Jews in the conquest and subsequent settlement of Mexico. "It is widely believed that a large percentage of the earliest settlers of Mexico may have origins in the Middle East and were a result of the expulsion of non-Catholics out of Spain, just before the conquest of Mexico. Did the early Iberian settlers of Mexico have proportionately different origins than modern day Spaniards?" The theory being the expulsion and subsequent inquisition would have driven much of the Jewish population out of Spain and at least some to the Americas in the earliest stages of colonization. I now believe we are on verge of an answer. Previously autosomal DNA has provided some evidence of a Mexican-American and Jewish connection in this paper: BRCA1:185delAG found in the San Luis Valley probably originated in a Jewish founder by Makriyianni et. al With new advances in DNA testing we are now able to test our DNA for all our family lines rather than just the Y-DNA (Fathers, Father's Father's or Surname line going back thousands of years) line or MtDNA (Mother's, Mother's Mother's line going back thousands of years) line. Testing autosomal DNA involves testing the most variable portion of our Genome, which is relatively small, since we are all basically alike. Long stretches of our DNA are essentially broken up and inherited in our offspring. These segments of DNA are Identical By Descent (IBD), if long enough. With this type of testing we are comparing long stretches of DNA to determine familial relationships. A child may inherit typically from 47 to 53 percent of one parent's DNA. Cousins share less DNA and distant cousin's share a much smaller amount of DNA. See this link for more information: What's the average % DNA Shared for different types of cousins? This type of testing is new and is just now being offered at Family Tree DNA and has been out a few months at 23andme.com. Both are part of their new "Family Finder" and "Relative Finder" respectively. Initially with 23andme's Relative Finder you opt in, to participate and you are given a list of relatives. They currently have a database of over 30,000 results to compare with. At first these results appear as anonymous with only the MTDNA and Y-DNA (if male), a predicted relationship (parent, 2nd cousin, 3rd cousin...distant cousin etc.) and in some cases an indication of regional ancestral origin. In addition the amount of common stretches of DNA along with the number of segments are provided. Thus far, Mexico DNA Project members Al Aburto and his Aunt (Puebla in Southern Mexico or Chihuahua in Northern Mexico), Joe Alvarez and his Mother (Northeastern Mexico lines) and myself and Mother (Zacatecas, North Central Mexico lines) have results from this testing. We all are showing Jewish distant cousins. In some cases these Jewish distant cousins are showing up as more closely related than our cousins in Mexico. Note that 23andme is categorizing cousins differently for people with Ashkenazi ancestry. They are making relationship predictions that take into account the higher than average DNA sharing found in people with Ashkenazi ancestry. In many of these cases, this results in a "distant" cousin prediction. Source: Are you categorizing cousins differently for people with Ashkenazi ancestry? This is shown below in family members matches to Jews showing up as distant cousins even though they have the amount of matching DNA that would otherwise be a 5th cousin. While our anonymous and known 23andme closer relatives (out to 10th cousins) appear to be from Latin America (MtDNA is Native American in most cases) our "Distant Cousins" appear to be Jewish. Since all of us had a Parent or in Al's case an Aunt tested; this phenomenon was even more telling in their results. The next step was to try and make contact with those that have opted in to share their profiles. Those cousins that we had contacted confirmed Jewish and/or Eastern European ancestry and surnames of Jewish origin. 23andme appeared to recognize this as Al Aburto noticed a change in his Aunt's results as these Middle Eastern results went from close relatives to distant cousins after a recent algorithm change. This is when it appears 23andme started adjusting for Ashkenazi matches by making them distant cousins instead of 5th cousins in the majority of cases. How do we know these "Distant Cousins" are Jewish based on the limited feedback from them? As you can see below we have received confimation or Jewish ancestry on many of our distant cousins. Otherwise, one of my Mother's distant cousins has shared a profile that says he is of Eastern European Ancestry with surnames that are of typical Jewish origin. See her distant cousin, number 21 below. Also the lineage's these results are showing up in are rare and prevalent in Jews or founder Jewish lineages. Also they are showing up as distant relatives when the amount of DNA shared would make them closer cousins. See the adjustment made by 23andme here: Are you categorizing cousins differently for people with Ashkenazi ancestry? Jewish Founder Lineages and Rare Lineages with prevalence among Jews MtDNA N1b2 - "Research has shown that Ashkenazi living today trace back to just a handful of mitochondrial DNA lines. Their mitochondrial genetics is so restricted, in fact, that 40% of the Ashkenazi living today can be traced back to as few as four individual women." "One of those women belonged to the N1b2 haplogroup, which is found today in the mitochondrial DNA of about 10% of Ashkenazi. Though it is also found in other Jewish groups, the vast majority of the people who carry it today trace their lineage back to one, or at most a few, women who lived between 500 and 2,500 years ago, and most likely during the first millennium AD." Source on MtDNA N1b2 MtDNA K1a1b1a - "About 1.7 million Ashkenazi living today - about 20% of the population - share a single branch of the K haplogroup, K1a1b1a. The diversity of that haplogroup among Ashkenazi suggests that it arose in the Near East between 2,000 and 3,000 years ago, and that everyone who shares it today could have shared a common ancestor as recently as 700 years ago." Source on MtDNA K1a1b1a MtDNA K2a2a and K1a9 - "K in the Ashkenazi - A few branches of haplogroup K, such as K1a9, K2a2a, and K1a1b1a, are specific to Jewish populations and especially to Ashkenazi Jews, whose roots lie in central and eastern Europe. These branches of haplogroup K are found at levels of 30% among Ashkenazi. But they are also found at lower levels in Jewish populations from the Near East and Africa, and among Sephardic Jews who trace their roots to medieval Spain. That indicates an origin of those K haplogroup branches in the Near East before 70 AD, when the Roman destruction of Jerusalem scattered the Jewish people around the Mediterranean and beyond." "... a similar pattern in two other K branches that are common among the Ashkenazi, K1a9 and K2a2, as well as the N1b branch of haplogroup N, has led researchers to conclude that 40% of the Ashkenazi living today - about 3.4 million people - could descend from as few as four women who lived within the last 2,000 years." Source on MtDNA K2a2a MtDNA T2e - Clarifying Mitochondrial DNA Subclades of T2e from Mideast to Mexico Abstract We report on two of the oldest mitochondrial DNA clusters in existence with Jewish affiliation. Both are in haplogroup T2e1. Four unrelated individuals from the Mexico mtDNA project were found to have the control region mutations that characterize a Sephardic signature previously reported (motif 16114T-16192T within T2e). Full genomic sequencing found the identical coding region mutations as Sephardic individuals which provides genetic evidence for founders of Northern Mexico that were both female and Sephardic Jewish. This is in contrast to a more common finding of European male, but local female founders and additionally lends biological support to anecdotes and historical reports of Crypto-Jewish founding of the Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas regions of Mexico and influx to Southern Texas, USA. The haplotype is nested in an old tree with mutations at positions 2308 and 15499, presently of uncertain geographic origin. The second cluster, a Bulgarian Sephardic founding lineage (9181G within T2e) previously reported, was found here in a population of largely Americans of European descent, but only among Jewish individuals. The non-synonymous mutation in ATPase 6 was found among both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews from diverse regions of Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, and Romania. Full genomic sequencing found great coding region variability with several haplotypes and suggested a Near East origin at least 3000 years old. This predates the split between Jewish groups, but more recent admixture between Sephardim and Ashkenazim cannot be ruled out. Together the two Jewish-affiliated clusters account for all the genetic distance found in branch T2e1 and much of T2e. The findings suggest reexamination of the origins of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup T2e as Levantine or early back migration to the Near East. New subclades of T2e are identified. Clarifying Mitochondrial DNA Subclades of T2e from Mideast to Mexico Y-DNA J1e - "J is the most common haplogroup among Ashkenazi Jews; about 40% of Ashkenazi men have chromosomes belonging to it. J1 has largely remained near its place of origin in the Near East. It is most common there and in northern and eastern Africa. It is found only rarely in Europe except among Jewish men, whose male ancestors brought it from the Near East as a consequence of the diaspora" Source on Y-DNA J1e Additional source on Y-DNA J1e Y-DNA E1b1b1c1a - "Although haplogroup E1b1b1c1 is common throughout the Near East, reaching levels of 5% among populations such as the Bedouin, Omanis and Druze, it appears particularly elevated in Jewish populations. E1b1b1c1 averages 10% among both Ashkenazi from Eastern Europe and Sephardic Jews from Iberia. About 15% of Ethiopian Jews also carry the haplgroup, although it is not known if they are more closely related to other Jews bearing the E1b1b1c1 or to the other Ethiopian populations that also exhibit it." "Jews from Yemen carry E1b1b1c1 at levels of about 10%, and about 20% of Libyan Jewish men belong to the haplogroup. Given the clearly elevated frequency in all Jewish populations, E1b1b1c1 was very likely present in the ancestral Jewish population from the Levant that dispersed throughout the Old World about 2,000 years ago."Source on Y-DNA E1b1b1c1a Y-DNA R1b1 - the undifferentiated R1b1 that I have researched occurs with prevalence among the Jews. This is a very rare lineage and the Mexico Project has Joe Alvarez (one of the subjects of this paper). I have connected his haplotype with the Sephardic Diaspora (see this entry on the project page Joe Alvarez results). Also see The Jewish R1b Project Y-DNA Q and the Jewish Diaspora - "According to historical sources the Jewish population of Eastern Europe arrived in the region about 1,000 years ago, after migrating out of the Levant a millennium earlier. Today's Ashkenazi Jews carry evidence of this migration in the form of Near Eastern lineage's not seen in other European populations. Haplogroup Q is one example: it is found in 5% of Ashkenazi Jews, while the haplogroup is almost nonexistent in all other Europeans. That pattern also indicates that the haplogroup has existed in the Near East for at least a few thousand years" Source: Y-DNA Q. This haplogroup is found in about 10 to 15 percent of males of Mexican ancestry but the majority, are of the Q1a3a Native American branch, which this participant tested negative on. Y-DNA Q1b - it appears most Q1a* lines went to America's with the Native Americans, the Q1b lines per the profiles on 23andme and postings on Q1b are of Jewish origin. See Ashkenazi Jewish Q1b where it says "It appears that all of us have Ashkenazi (northern European) Jewish ancestors. Apparently about 5% of all Ashkenazi Jewish people are Q1b."
Here are suspected (per the listed research in this paper) and/or confirmed Jewish results by order of relatedness (i.e. segment(s) of shared DNA)
Gary Felix' Mother's
22 (all) distant cousins
Joe Alvarez' Mother
has 55 "Distant Cousin" results. Here are her suspected (per the research in this paper) and/or confirmed Jewish results
Al Aburto's Aunt
has 29 "Distant Cousin" results. Here are her suspected (per the research in this paper) and/or confirmed Jewish results
01Male
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.20%
Number of shared segments = 2
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup E1a1
Amount of shared DNA 0.16%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH - Ukraine, Poland
Male
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup I2a2b
Amount of shared DNA 0.24%
Number of shared segments = 2
02Female
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.15%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup H
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.15%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Multiple Region Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Paternal Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
03Male
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup Q
Amount of shared DNA 0.14%
Number of shared segments = 1
Female
United States
Multiple region ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup U7a
Amount of shared DNA 0.14%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH-Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Austria
Female
United States
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
04Male
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a2d3*
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Female
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Female
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
05Female
United States
Northern European Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H11*
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Maternal Haplogroup T2b2
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Unknown Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup HV
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
06Male
Maternal Haplogroup H
Paternal Haplogroup J2
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup H
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
United States
Southern European Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup R1a1a*
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH ancestry
07Male
United States
Southern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup H1
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Female
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
08Female
United States
Southern European Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1
Amount of shared DNA 0.13%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Multiple Region Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H5a*
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
09Male
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Unknown ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup J1a
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.12%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH - adopted, California
Male
United States
Multiple Region Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a9
Paternal Haplogroup J2a1b1*
Amount of shared DNA 0.09%
Number of shared segments = 1
10Male
United States
Southern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H
Paternal Haplogroup R1b1
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Multiple region ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup U5a1*
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Multiple Region Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup N9a*
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.08%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH Ancestry
11Male
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup Q1b
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup L1c3
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
12Female
Maternal Haplogroup U1b
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH
Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H1*
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
13Female
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a*
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H3
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
14Female
United States
Northern European Ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup J2b2
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
15Male
United States
Maternal Haplogroup U3a
Paternal Haplogroup T
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Female
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
16Male
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup K2a2a
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.11%
Number of shared segments = 1
17Male
Maternal Haplogroup HV1
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1a2*
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup T1a
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
18Male
Maternal Haplogroup H5a*
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Maternal Haplogroup H
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.9%
Number of shared segments = 1
19Male
Near Eastern/Middle Eastern ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup J1a*
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Both sides of my family are Ashkenazi Jews from Ukraine
Male
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup T
Amount of shared DNA 0.9%
Number of shared segments = 1
20Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H1b
Paternal Haplogroup J2a1b1*
Amount of shared DNA 0.10%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
Canada
Southern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup K1a1b1a
Paternal Haplogroup R1b1b2
Amount of shared DNA 0.9%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed ASHKENAZI JEWISH
21Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup J1e
Amount of shared DNA 0.09%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed Eastern European Ancestry with family surnames that are of typical JEWISH origin
Male
United States
Near Eastern/Middle Eastern ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup U6a*
Paternal Haplogroup J2
Amount of shared DNA 0.8%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH; Ukraine
22Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup E1b1b1c1a
Amount of shared DNA 0.07%
Number of shared segments = 1
Male
United States
Northern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup N1b2
Paternal Haplogroup Q1b
Amount of shared DNA 0.8%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH
23 Male
United States
Southern European ancestry
Maternal Haplogroup H7
Paternal Haplogroup J2b2*
Amount of shared DNA 0.8%
Number of shared segments = 1
Confirmed JEWISH
Ashkenazi and Ancestry Matching DNA graphics: As of July 15, 2010, 23andme is allowing us to compare segments of DNA to segments from Askenazi Jews. As of this update 23andme has tested a total of about 50,000 samples. Gary Felix' Mother - of the 16.8 percent of this genome covered by Ancestry Finder hits; approximately 10 to 19 percent match Ashkenazi Jews. Closest regional genetic affinity to Central and Eastern European Countries.

Joe Alvarez' Mother - of the 29.1 percent of this genome covered by Ancestry Finder hits; approximately 10 to 27 percent match Ashkenazi Jews. Closest regional genetic affinity to Central and Eastern European Countries.

Al Aburto's Aunt - of the 20.4 percent of this genome covered by Ancestry Finder hits; approximately 9 to 22 percent match Ashkenazi Jews. Close regional genetic affinity to some Eastern European Countries.

Joe Alvarez (closest we have to the Sephardic founders) - of the 39.3 percent of this genome covered by Ancestry Finder hits; approximately 29 to 40 percent match Ashkenazi Jews.

What is the chance that someone on my Relative Finder list is not related to me? Response from 23andme: Because Relative Finder only identifies people who share a DNA segment of at least 7 cM (centiMorgans) and 700 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) long, you can be confident that the users on your list are your relatives. The vast majority of relatives found by Relative Finder shares a common ancestor within the last five to ten generations. A few may be more distantly related. Source: 23andme So how are shared segments of Jewish DNA showing up in the genomes of Mexican Americans? This appears to be a consequence of "founder effect". Founder effect is when a small portion of a large population leaves the main group and migrates elsewhere, as in the case of the colonization of new lands. In the case of the Jews they continue to inter- marry and consequently share a larger portion of their DNA than would otherwise be the case. Our genealogy books show suspected Jewish lines in our founder populations such as Monterrey-Saltillo (see Conquistadores and Crypto-Jews of Monterrey) in the Northeast of Mexico. These founder lines were known to intermarry. Zacatecas and Puebla have founder lines since colonial days. For Jewish DNA to continue into the present in these 3 populations there must have been a substantial migration to begin with or these lines would have been absorbed into the non Jewish Castilian population, long ago. It appears the shared blocks of DNA are a legacy of this early settlement and expansion. Evidently 23andme realized this "founder effect" was effecting the relationship predictions found in the Jewish samples so they adjusted for this effect. The list Rootsweb dna is also reporting the same close relationship between some of Northwestern European ancestry and Mennonites. See GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives See also a discussion we had on this same list on the Mexican/Jewish connection GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives: November 2009 Conclusions: It is fascinating what our DNA is able to tell us. The founder Jewish haplogroups and the rare connection to some of the above haplogroups and Jews as well as the confirmed relationships to Jewish distant cousins are opening a window we had yet to discover. It is known that prior to the expulsion, the Sephardic Jewish population of Iberia vastly outnumbered all other groups of Jews. Sephardic Jews established a presence in Iberia since about 200 C.E. We can now get a feeling of the vastness of this Diaspora. In addition we can see how closely this group is connected and get a feel for our connection to them through our Sephardic ancestors. History: What of these Ashkenazi matches to those with Mexican Ancestry? In the book the Spanish Inquisition Kamen states "Jews had been in the peninsula from at least the third century. In Medieval Spain they constituted the single largest Jewish community in the world". In the book DNA & Tradition The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews Rabbi Kleiman states "By 1600 the Ashkenazim were numerically and culturally the most significant Jewish community in the world". It appears that a significant portion of the Sephardic community went and joined their distant cousins in Eastern Europe as well as joined in the settlement of the New World where they participated in it's expansion. According to the book "New World Jewry 1493-1825: Requiem for the Forgotten" by Liebman (pg4), "there are, literally, millions of pages of documents, primary sources, that refer to Jews and Jewish communities in the New World." "Although many American Hispanics have overlooked the existance of Jews in the New World during the Colonial period (1493-1825), it is surprising that six eminent historians at the Hebrew University make no reference to any Jewish presence or community in Latin America prior to 1900 in their History of the Jewish People, except for a few lines about Brazil in the period from 1631-1654." In Liebman's book The Jews of New Spain he writes of Diego de Ocana a reconsiled Jew in 1533 Mexico , as wearing a long coat and a round hat similar to the clothing worn by Jews in Lithuania and Poland in the 17th to 20th centuries. This appears by Liebman to be a caftan. It seems the Jewish explusion out of Iberia coincides with the Ashkenazi expansion in Central and Eastern Europe. Luis de Carvajal was documented as saying on his way to the stake in Mexico City to be burned "O this evil tribunal of the Holy Office. If it had not existed in this Kingdom, I could count the Christians here on my fingers." Further Liebman writes "There were so many Jews in New Spain in 1602 that Friar Hernando de Ojea, a Dominican, was perturbed by their numbers. He published an apologetic work intended to convince Mexican Jews that they should convert". Further Liebman writes "Evidence of the growth of Jewish population may be gleaned noting that the autos-de-fe at the begining of the seventeeth century included not only the prisoners of the previous decade but also their children". "This natural increase plus the legal immigration into New Spain in the early decades of the seventeenth century created a substancial Jewish population.". Liebman writes of Juana Enriquez torture on the rack in 1648: "...she cried out, I have said all that you gentlemen want me to say, I say that all those who are in Mexico are Jews, ay! My God of my life for the love of God, I have confessed the truth". There evidently were many more Sephardic colonizers in Mexico than we ever realized. Also these founders married enough amongst themselves to have their DNA show up significantly in us today. Ramifications: The fact that 23andme had to adjust their "relative finder' algorithm for the closeness of Ashkenazi Jews attests to the finding that Jewish DNA does exist. While my Mother has 22 distant cousins (15 of these cousins with common Jewish founder lines or rare haplogroups frequent in Jewish populations) I have only 6. I share distant cousin number 2 (.15%) intact, one of two segments (.10%) of distant cousin number 1 and distant cousin number 19 intact (.10%). All are from Jewish founder lines. It appears I inherited no Jewish founder lines from my Father (Northwestern Mexico and not tested). It is likely that Sephardic origins will be found in the oldest populations all over Latin America. This is the first autosomal evidence for this significant Sephardic/Ashkenazi connection to Mexico. Those with the most direct descendants of the founders of our regional populations in Mexico should have the most Jewish DNA, depending on the founder population. We need more data to clarify things. Family Tree DNA has just announced their version of Relative Finder which they call Family Finder. It is superior to 23andme's version since it identifies more relatives and allows you to easily contact your relatives. In addition your project administrator has the tools to identify founder lines common to many participants. I would encourage you to test with the Mexico DNA Project at FTDNA and choose Family Finder when it comes out so that we can determine the extent of our Sephardic Jewish Ancestry and discover our founder lines. We will be looking at specifically what areas of our DNA we share with Jews. Another possibility since our ancestors intermarried extensively is finding the regional founding lines of Mexico. We will be able to arrive at conclusions based on the data among project members. We will then have an organized way of sharing these new discoveries. The cost of the test is $289. Click here to learn more about Family Finder on the Frequently Asked Questions page. Special thanks to Al Aburto and Joe Alvarez for their cooperation. The Sephardic Puzzle: Below are distant cousin results for those with Mexican Ancestry from 23andme's Ancestry Finder Utility. From 23andme - "Let the 23andMe Community help you discover what countries your ancestors might have lived in. This lab is fueled by your responses to the "Where Are You From?" ancestry survey." Using the results from this utility we should be able to piece together our Sephardic DNA. TRUE denotes an Ashkenazi Grandparent. 42 "Distant Cousins" of Gary Felix' Mother (ancestrial lines from Zacatecas Mexico)
*Maternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Maternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Chromo-
some
Segment Start
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment End
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In
Centi-
Morgans
1United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE1230.42332.66.8
2United StatesRussiaLithuaniaLithuaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1230.42332.66.9
3PolandPolandYemenYemenTRUETRUETRUETRUE1230.42332.66.8
4UkraineUkrainePolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE1230.4232.52.15.1
5United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUEFALSEFALSETRUE1230.42332.66.9
6MexicoMexicoMexicoMexicoTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE165.574.597.1
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 1 between 230.4 and 233
7MoroccoMoroccoMoroccoMoroccoFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE1244.8249.14.37.7
8SpainSpainNot ProvidedNot ProvidedFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE1244.4249.14.78.7
9USNot ProvidedUSUSFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE1244.5249.14.68
10MexicoUSMexicoUSFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE1244.4248.54.17.6
11FranceFranceFranceAlgeriaFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE1244.4248.54.17.6
Email contact confirms Sephardic DNA from Morocco on Chromosome 1 between 244.8 and 249.1 (Sephardic Cousin #1)
12GermanyAustriaUnited StatesRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE2227.7230.93.25.2
13MoldovaUkraineRomaniaUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE2228.2232.246.4
14UkraineUkraineUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE2228.2232.84.67
15UkraineUkraineUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE2228.2232.84.67
16United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE2228.2233.55.38
17PolandUkrainePolandArgentinaTRUETRUETRUETRUE2229.42344.67.1
18LithuaniaLithuaniaRussiaUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE2229.7233.23.55.2
19PolandPolandPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE2229.8233.73.95.4
20United StatesUnited StatesCanadaGermanyFALSEFALSETRUETRUE2229.9233.73.85.4
21United StatesPolandUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE2229.92344.16.2
22United StatesUnited StatesUkraineUkraineTRUEFALSETRUETRUE2230.1233.73.65.3
23United StatesUnited StatesLithuaniaLithuaniaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE2230.2234.34.15.9
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 2 between 227.7 and 234.3
24TunisiaTunisiaTunisiaTunisiaFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE614.317.83.55.2
25MexicoMexicoUSUSFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE612.517.75.27.8
26USUSNot ProvidedNot ProvidedFALSEFALSEFALSEFALSE614.320.15.88.1
27LatviaLatviaAfganistanUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE614.517.73.25.1
Email contact confirms Sephardic DNA from Tunisia on Chromosome 6 between 14.3 and 17.8 (Sephardic Cousin #2)
28United StatesUnited StatesPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE82.84.51.75.6
29LithuaniaLithuaniaLithuaniaLithuaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE828.232.64.45.9
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 8 between 2.8 and 4.5 also 28.2 and 32.6
30PolandPolandIsraelPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE9104.3108.23.96.3
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 9 between 104.3 and 108.2
31UkraineUkraineBelarusRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1232.544.411.95.6
32BulgariaBulgariaPolandFranceFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1232.544.912.45.8
33UkraineUkraineUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE1232.545.212.75.9
34AustriaNot ProvidedRomaniaRomaniaTRUEFALSETRUETRUE1232.546.5147.6
35RussiaNot ProvidedNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE1232.547.114.68.1
36United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE1233.34713.77.4
37United KingdomCanadaPolandNot ProvidedFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1237.646.99.36.8
38PolandHungaryUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUEFALSE1239.946.975.8
39RussiaUkraineRussiaUkraineFALSETRUEFALSETRUE1240.847.36.55.5
40United StatesRussiaUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE1241.447.56.15.1
41RussiaPolandAustriaPolandTRUEFALSETRUETRUE1241.447.56.15.1
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 12 between 32.5 and 47.5
42UkraineUkraineNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE1449.855.55.77.2
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 14 between 49.8 and 55.5
7 "Distant Cousins" of Rogelia Nava Hurtado (ancestrial lines from Nuevo Leon, Jalisco, & Zacatecas Mexico)
*Maternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Maternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Chromo-
some
Segment Start
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment End
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In
Centi-
Morgans
1RussiaRussiaRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE275.588.112.612.7
2HungaryHungaryUnited StatesPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE275.785.39.68.9
3United StatesUnited StatesRussiaNot ProvidedFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE277.588.110.610.2
4RussiaPolandAustriaGermanyTRUETRUETRUETRUE27987.58.57
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 2 between 75.5 and 88.1
5CanadaCanadaItalyUnited StatesFALSEFALSEFALSETRUE1061.672.61111.5
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 10 between 61.6 and 72.6
6South AfricaSouth AfricaItalySouth AfricaFALSETRUEFALSEFALSE1460.270.19.98.7
7UkraineUkrainePolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE1460.669.28.67.6
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 14 between 60.2 and 70.1
41 "Distant Cousins" of Al Aburto's Aunt (ancestrial lines from Puebla in Southern Mexico and Chihuahua in Northern Mexico)
*Maternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Maternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Chromo-
some
Segment Start
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment End
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In
Centi-
Morgans
1United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE167.575.586
2RussiaRussiaRomaniaPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE167.776.38.66.2
3BelarusRussiaBelarusUkraineTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE167.774.775.1
4GermanyGermanyGermanyPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE167.776.58.86.4
5United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSETRUEFALSEFALSE167.776.48.76.4
6United StatesNot ProvidedPolandPolandFALSEFALSEFALSETRUE167.776.58.86.5
7PolandPolandHungaryPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE167.776.58.86.5
8United StatesUnited StatesRomaniaRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE168.576.47.95.2
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 1 between 67.5 and 76.5
9PolandPolandPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE2190.1195.95.85.4
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 2 between 190.1 and 195.9
10United StatesUnited StatesRussiaRussiaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE318.924.25.36.3
11UkrainePolandUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE320.624.23.65.1
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 3 between 18.9 and 24.2
12Mexico SpainUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUETRUE524.631.46.86.4
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 5 between 24.6 and 31.4
13UkraineUkraineUzbekistanUkraineTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE929.336.375.2
14Not ProvidedNot ProvidedUnited StatesNot ProvidedFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE938.476.938.536.1
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 9 between 29.3 and 36.3 also 38.4 and 76.9
15IranIranRomaniaRomaniaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE970.276.36.17.6
16United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE970.275.95.76.6
17United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE970.276.96.79.1
18PolandNot ProvidedNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE970.276.56.38.1
19United StatesUnited StatesHungaryHungaryTRUETRUEFALSETRUE970.275.95.76.7
20RussiaRussiaUkraineRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE970.276.96.79.1
21Not ProvidedNot ProvidedUkraineNot ProvidedTRUETRUETRUETRUE970.276.96.79.1
22United StatesUnited StatesUkraineUkraineFALSEFALSETRUETRUE970.277.37.19.6
23United StatesAustriaNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE970.276.96.79.1
24RussiaRussiaRomaniaRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE970.277.37.19.2
25PolandLithuaniaUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUEFALSE970.277.37.19.2
26United StatesUnited StatesUkraineUkraineFALSEFALSETRUETRUE970.276.96.79.1
27PolandRussiaUnited StatesNot ProvidedTRUETRUETRUEFALSE970.676.96.38.9
28RussiaRussiaUnited StatesHungaryTRUETRUETRUETRUE970.676.96.38.9
29UkrainePolandLithuaniaLatviaTRUETRUETRUETRUE97176.95.98.5
30UkraineGeorgiaGeorgiaGeorgiaTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE971.177.36.28.3
31United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE971.677.35.77.9
32PolandPolandAustriaAustriaTRUETRUEFALSETRUE971.677.35.77.8
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 9 between 70.2 and 77.3
33United StatesUnited StatesRussiaRussiaFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1126.235.59.39
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 11 between 26.2 and 35.5
34South AfricaSouth AfricaLithuaniaLithuaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1327.3346.712.4
35UkraineRussiaUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE1328.2345.810.4
36United StatesRussiaUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE1329.334.75.48.9
37CanadaRussiaUnited KingdomCanadaFALSETRUETRUETRUE1329.532.42.95.4
38IrelandItalyRomaniaNot ProvidedFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1329.533.13.66.6
39UkraineUkraineUnited StatesRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1330.9354.15.1
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 13 between 27.3 and 35
40RomaniaPolandAustriaUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE2127.231.64.46.1
41UkraineNot ProvidedNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE2127.231.64.45.8
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 21 between 27.2 and 31.6
58 "Distant Cousins" of Joe Alvarez' Mother (ancestrial lines from Northeastern Mexico)
*Maternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Maternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Chromo-
some
Segment Start
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment End
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In
Centi-
Morgans
1PolandPolandRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE241.945.945.5
2HungaryHungaryHungaryHungaryFALSEFALSETRUETRUE241.946.14.26.1
3BelarusBelarusRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE241.945.945.4
4Not ProvidedNot ProvidedRussiaRussiaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE241.945.945.1
5United StatesNot ProvidedRussiaPolandTRUEFALSETRUETRUE242.2463.85.6
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 2 between 41.9 and 46.1
6United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE2180.7194.113.48.8
7United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesCanadaTRUETRUETRUETRUE2181185.514.59.6
8MoldovaMoldovaRomaniaRomaniaTRUETRUETRUEFALSE2181192.911.98.1
9HungaryNot ProvidedRussiaEgyptTRUEFALSETRUETRUE2181193128.2
10JamaicaUnited StatesAustriaAustriaFALSETRUETRUETRUE2190196.86.85.8
11LithuaniaBelarusUkrainePolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE2190195.55.55
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 2 between 180.7 and 196.8
12Mexico SpainUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUETRUE524.631.46.86.4
13UkraineUkraineUkraineMoldovaTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.72.95.4
14United StatesRussiaUnited KingdomLatviaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE531.834.93.15.6
15GermanyNot ProvidedNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUEFALSEFALSEFALSE531.835.53.76.4
16United StatesUnited StatesUkraineUkraineFALSEFALSETRUETRUE531.834.93.15.6
17United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUETRUE531.835.53.76.3
18UkraineUkraineUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.93.15.8
19United StatesUnited StatesNot ProvidedUnited StatesFALSETRUEFALSEFALSE531.834.62.85.2
20HungaryHungaryUnited StatesPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.93.15.7
21UkraineUkrainePolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.72.95.3
22PolandHungaryUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUEFALSE531.834.93.15.6
23United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.835.13.36.1
24PolandPolandRomaniaRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.62.85.2
25RussiaRussiaRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.835.43.66.3
26CanadaLithuaniaNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUETRUETRUETRUE531.834.62.85.1
27United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSEFALSETRUE531.834.93.15.6
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 5 between 31.8 and 35.4
28SerbiaSerbiaBulgariaBulgariaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE5163.61673.45.1
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 5 between 163.6 and 167
29United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUE632.639.26.67.4
30PolandRussiaFrancePolandTRUETRUEFALSETRUE632.637.75.16.1
31RussiaRussiaPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE636.540.74.25.7
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 6 between 32.6 and 40.7
32CanadaCanadaCanadaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE93338.75.76.5
33NetherlandsNetherlandsRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE933.138.75.66.2
34United StatesUnited StatesPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE933.438.75.36
35United KingdomUnited StatesUnited StatesRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE933.438.75.36
36AustriaCzech RepublicLithuaniaLithuaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUE933.538.75.25.7
37Not ProvidedItalyNot ProvidedRussiaFALSEFALSEFALSETRUE934.438.74.35.4
38RussiaSpainNot ProvidedNot ProvidedFALSETRUEFALSEFALSE935.138.73.65.1
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 9 between 33 and 38.7
39SlovakiaHungaryPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE105.171.95.4
40PolandPolandRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE105.27.52.36.3
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 10 between 5.1 and 7.5
41GermanyGermanyGermanyGermanyTRUETRUETRUETRUE1555.658.83.25.6
42CanadaCanadaPolandPolandTRUETRUEFALSETRUE1555.660.14.58.1
43PolandUkraineLatviaLatviaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1555.659.13.56.6
44United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1555.6648.411.6
45HungaryHungaryRussiaRussiaFALSEFALSETRUETRUE1555.6593.46
46ArgentinaSyriaUkraineUkraineFALSEFALSETRUETRUE1555.659.13.56.6
47United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUEFALSE1555.659.13.56.6
48PolandPolandPolandPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE1555.660.34.78.4
49HungaryHungaryRussiaRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUE1555.660.14.58.1
50PolandPolandUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUEFALSETRUETRUE1555.658.83.25.6
51United StatesNot ProvidedRomaniaRomaniaFALSETRUEFALSEFALSE1555.8637.210.9
52HungaryHungaryUnited StatesPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUE1556.461.14.78.4
53United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUETRUE1556.563.46.99.7
54PolandPolandUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUE1557.761.43.76.4
55CanadaRussiaUnited KingdomCanadaFALSETRUETRUETRUE1557.761.33.66.2
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 15 between 55.6 and 64
56United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFranceTRUETRUETRUETRUE1656.460.94.55.2
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 16 between 56.4 and 60.9
57United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesRussiaTRUETRUEFALSEFALSE1917.933.415.55.1
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 19 between 17.9 and 33.4
58PolandPolandPolandPolandFALSETRUETRUETRUE2015.317.72.45
Possible Sephardic DNA on Chromosome 20 between 15.3 and 17.7
25 "Distant Cousins" of Edwin P. Gutierrez (maternal ancestrial lines from Durango Mexico)
*Maternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandmother
Birth
Country
Paternal
Grandfather
Birth
Country
Maternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Maternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandmother
Declared
Ashkenazi
Paternal
Grandfather
Declared
Ashkenazi
Chromo-
some
Segment Start
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment End
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In MegaBase
Pairs
Segment Length
In
Centi-
Morgans
1United StatesUnited StatesUnited KingdomUnited KingdomFALSEFALSETRUETRUEX69.287.418.28.1
2RussiaRussiaBelarusUkraineFALSEFALSETRUEFALSEX64.585.420.910.4
3United StatesLatviaUnited StatesRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUEX50.678.728.19.4
4RussiaRussiaItalyItalyTRUETRUEFALSEFALSEX68.587.418.98.9
5United StatesUnited StatesPolandRomaniaTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.587.318.88.6
6Not ProvidedUkraineIrelandNot ProvidedTRUETRUEFALSEFALSEX50.678.427.89.3
7PolandPolandUkraineUkraineTRUETRUETRUETRUEX7087.417.47.3
8RussiaRussiaBelarusLatviaTRUETRUETRUETRUEX69.287.818.68.7
9CanadaUnited KingdomUkraineUkraineFALSEFALSETRUETRUEX68.587.418.98.6
10PolandPolandUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSEFALSETRUETRUEX50.386.33613.7
11United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.485.917.57.4
12United StatesNot ProvidedUnited StatesNot ProvidedFALSEFALSETRUEFALSEX68.585.717.27.1
13United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesFALSETRUEFALSEFALSEX69.787.417.77.8
14United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUEFALSEFALSEX68.487.4199.1
15United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUEX50.487.43715.4
16PolandPolandUnited StatesUnited StatesTRUETRUETRUETRUEX50.983.93311.6
17United StatesUnited StatesNot ProvidedNot ProvidedTRUETRUEFALSEFALSEX50.683.933.311.5
18RussiaRussiaUnited StatesPolandTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.587.418.98.9
19UkraineUkraineUkraineUkraineFALSETRUETRUETRUEX68.586.5188
20United StatesUnited StatesHungaryHungaryTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.587.318.88.6
21United StatesUnited StatesGermanyGrenadaTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.687.418.88.6
22GermanyAustriaUnited StatesRussiaTRUETRUETRUETRUEX6385.422.410.4
23AustriaCanadaUkraineUkraineTRUEFALSETRUETRUEX69.887.317.57.3
24PolandPolandUnited KingdomUnited KingdomTRUETRUETRUETRUEX68.587.318.88.6
25United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesNot ProvidedTRUETRUETRUEFALSEX68.587.418.98.9
Likely Sephardic DNA on Chromosome X between 50.3 and 87.8
Our Sephardic Cousins: At 23andme.com it is possible to share Genomes. With their "Countries of Ancestry" utility we are able to see where in the world our closest relatives are from given a significant level of shared DNA. Given the growth of their database we are now seeing Sephardic DNA matches. Confirmed Sephardic Cousin #1, with 4 grandparents from Morocco, identified in the Sephardic Puzzle (Dolores Felix) section is examined below: With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of his genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of Mexican ancestry than those of his native Morocco. With this countries of ancestry utility you can highlight these segments of DNA and access the matches' 23andme profile if they have chosen not to remain anonymous. Regarding Sephardic cousin #1; here are the specific locations in Mexico where the above matches (at 5cm and 4 grandparents) from Mexico come from: (Note: Some of these matches were anonymous or just said Mexico; which I left out) Family Locations: Sombrerete Zacatecas; Chalchihuites, Zacatecas Family Locations: Mezcala, Jalisco, Mexico; Tepatitlan, Jalisco, Mexico Family Locations: Monterrey, Merida, Puebla, Mexico City Family Locations: Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango Family Locations: La purisima de Carrillo, Rancho Adjuntas Del Refugio, Valparaiso Zacatecas Mexico Family Locations: Chihuahua; Irapuato, Guanajauto; Aguascalientes; Zacatecas Family Locations: Monterrey, Mexico About Me: El Naranjo de Chila. Aguililla of michoacan. Family Locations: Zacatecas, MX, Guanajuato, Mx. Family Locations: Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Mexico Family Locations: San Sebastian, DF, Morelia, Santander, Puebla Family Locations: Ahijullo, Jalisco, Mexico; El Remate, Colima, Mexico Family Locations: Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico Family Locations: Culiacan-Sinaloa, Nayarit-Tecepespan,Tepic, Guaymas-Sonora Family Locations: Chihuahua, Mexico; Sonora, Mexico Family Locations: Jerez, Ermita de Guadalupe, Zacatecas, Mexico Family Locations: Mexico City, Mexico Family Locations: Nava Coahuila, Sabinas Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas; Guadalajara, Jalisco Family Locations: Chihuahua Mexico,Durango Mexico Family Locations: Guadalajara Jalisco, Mexico; Tenamaxtlan; Tijuana, Mexico Family Locations: Monterrey, Mexico About Me: Born in Jesus Maria, Jalisco The above matches appear to come from all over Mexico. With settings at 7cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of his genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of his native Morocco than those of Mexico. With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of his genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of Mexican ancestry than those of his native Morocco. How much DNA does this Sephardic Cousin share with his Ashkenazi cousins: With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparent from one country Migration pattern of this Sephardic cousin #1: Tetouan Morocco>Israel Reference World Heritage Site - Medina of Tetouan "The medina of Tétouan was rebuilt by the end of the 15th century by refugees from the Reconquista (reconquest of Spain, completed by the fall of Granada in 1492)"... "Tétouan has also been home of an important Sephardi Jewish community, which immigrated from Spain after the Reconquista and the Spanish Inquisition. The Jews lived in a mellah, separated from the rest of the town by gates which were closed at night." Confirmed Sephardic Cousin #2, with 4 grandparents from Tunisia, identified in the Sephardic Puzzle (Dolores Felix) section is examined below: Note that Sephardic cousin #1 shares one segment of 6cM's with Sephardic cousin #2 With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has the same amount of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of Mexican ancestry as those of her native Tunisia. Regarding Sephardic cousin #2; here are the specific locations in Mexico where the above matches (at 5cm and 4 grandparents) from Mexico come from: (Note: Some of these matches were anonymous or just said Mexico; which I left out) Family Locations: Yurecuaro Michoacan, Jalisco Mexico Family Locations: Ixtlahuacan de los Membrillos, Jalisco, Mexico Family Locations: Guadalajara, (Jalisco); Mexicali, Mexico Family Locations: Atenguillo, San Pablo, Jalisco; Autlan, Jalisco; Mascota, Jalisco; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; Caborca, Sonora, Mexico Family Locations: Guadalajara; Tepatitlan, Mexico; Baja California Sur; Cuquio, Jalisco; Michoacan; Family Locations: Tinguindin, Purepero (Michoacán). Family Locations: Baja California; Guanajuato, Mexico; Chihuahua, Mexico Family Locations: Sombrerete Zacatecas; Chalchihuites, Zacatecas Mexico Family Locations: Saltillo, Mexico; Monterrey, Mexico Family Locations: Mexico City, Queretaro Mexico Family Locations: Santa Maria Del Oro, Durango; Inde, Durango Family Locations: Julimes, (Chihuahua) Mexico Family Locations: Chihuahua (all my ancestors has been born in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, from as early as the 1700's) Family Locations: Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico; Villa Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico Family Locations: Piedras Negras, (Coahuila) Mexico; The above matches appear to come mostly from Jalisco and the surrounding area. With settings at 7cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of her native Tunisia than those of Mexico. Mexico comes after Russia (.6% of genome covered) with .5% of her genome covered. With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of her native Tunisia than with those of Mexico. How much DNA does this Sephardic Cousin share with her Ashkenazi cousins: With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparent from one country Migration pattern of this Sephardic cousin #2: Algeria>La Goulette & Bizerte Tunisia La Goulette is a port in Tunis, the capital of Tunisia Confirmed Sephardic Cousin #3, with 4 grandparents from Turkey (not sharing significant DNA with Dolores Felix) is examined below: Note that Sephardic cousin #3 shares one segment of 5.1cM's with Sephardic cousin #1 Sephardic cousin #2 shares no segment of 5cM or more with Sephardic cousin #3 With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of Mexican ancestry than those of her native Turkey. Regarding Sephardic cousin #3; here are the specific locations in Mexico where the above matches (at 5cm and 4 grandparents) from Mexico come from: (Note: Some of these matches were anonymous or just said Mexico; which I left out) Family Locations: Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas Mexico; Monterrey Nuevo Leon Mexico; Districto Federal (DF) Mexico, Family Locations: Chihuahua Mexico; Durango Mexico. Family Locations: Pinos Altos Chihuahua, Mexico. Family Locations: Monterey Mexico; Guajuanto Mexico. Family Locations: La Paz,Baja California Sur; San Jose del Cabo, Baja California Sur Toluca; Veracruz; Valle de Santiago, Guanajuato, Jalisco Family Locations: Zacatecas, Mexico The above matches appear to come mostly from North Eastern Mexico and the surrounding area. With settings at 7cM and 4 grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of her native Turkey than those of Mexican Ancestry. Mexico comes in with .5% of her genome covered and ranks as the top Hispanic Country on her list. With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparents from one country We can see that at this level of matching this Sephardic cousin has more of her genome shared in the 23andme.com database with those of Mexican Ancestry than with her native Turkey. How much DNA does this Sephardic Cousin share with her Ashkenazi cousins: With settings at 5cM and 4 grandparents from one country With settings at 5cM and 1+ grandparent from one country Migration pattern of this Sephardic cousin #3: Turkey Email me Gary Felix at GaryF@pacbell.net if you have any questions. Email me anytime, Gary Felix Mexico DNA Project Administrator Note that I do not benefit monetarily from either 23andme or FTDNA (Mexico DNA Project). Additional Resources: Come and discuss "Jewish DNA in the Genome of Mexican-Americans" at our Mexico DNA Project Yahoo Group. The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom Syndrome Mutation blmAsh Is Present in Non-Jewish Americans of Spanish Ancestry by Ellis et. al. 1998. In summary, screening for blmAsh in families ascertained through BS has uncovered a fascinating historical-genetic mystery. The blmAsh mutation, common among persons of Ashkenazic ancestry, has been found to be segregating in Spanish-speaking Christian BS families who for many generations have dwelt in the southwestern United States, Mexico, or El Salvador, at least some of whom can trace their ancestry to Spain. blmAsh was not detected in any other non-Jewish population. MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish Population by Behar et. al. Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora by Behar et al. The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event by Behar et al. Distribution of HLA-B27 Subtypes in Ankylosing Spondylitis in an Israeli Population by Alaez et al. (2007). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the B27 subtypes to AS expression in a group of Jewish patients from Israel and to compare their distribution with that found in Mexican Mestizo patients because of the very well-documented Mediterranean and Semitic background in Mexicans. CONCLUSIONS: The only allele conferring risk to AS expression in Israeli Jews was B( *)2702, as was previously described in Mexican Mestizos. Populations of Mediterranean ancestry, such as Latin Americans, should be further explored to understand the contribution of ethnicity to the etiopathogenesis of AS. The impact of Converso Jews on the genomes of modern Latin Americans by Velez, Hammer et al (2011). Note that this paper identifies a Population in the Loja Province in S. Equador as having Sepharidic roots. See the July 15th 2010 entry graphic for Dolores Felix and note that cousins are most prevalent in Equador after Mexico.